Go away no hint: how a teenage hacker misplaced himself on-line | Hacking

José Robbe was leaving her place of job in Rotterdam when she noticed a person and a lady strolling in the direction of her. It was a Tuesday afternoon, 20 March 2012. “Are you Mrs Robbe?” She nodded. The lady, who was sporting denims and a black windcheater, defined that she was with the police. “I’d like to speak to you for a minute. It’s about your son, Edwin. We’re arresting him.” José stared, frozen. The lady requested if she would accompany them. Warily, José agreed.

On the police automotive, the officer informed her they supposed to shock her son on the household dwelling in Barendrecht, simply south of Rotterdam, and arrest him on the spot. She requested if José needed to be there for her son’s arrest. “No,” she replied grimly. It felt as if she had simply betrayed her son. To face by and watch would make it even worse. The police requested José for her home keys and dropped her off at a plaza by the native grocery store a number of blocks from her home. She felt horrible because the officers drove away to arrest her eldest little one, only a troubled 17-year-old. A short time later, three officers emerged from the home, escorting Edwin between them. He provided no resistance.

Edwin was taken to a detention centre in Houten, close to Utrecht. As soon as he was gone, José lastly re-entered her home. She sat on the living-room couch, watching as officers rummaged by cupboards, filed up and down the steps and bagged up flash drives, CD-Roms and telephones.

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A number of years later, I visited José and her husband, Ruud, of their terrace home in Rotterdam, the place they informed me about Edwin, and I defined to them how I had contacted him.

I had tracked Edwin down by a supply, obtained his phone quantity and ultimately made contact with him after repeated makes an attempt. At first, he didn’t reply to the WhatsApp messages I despatched. When he lastly did reply, it was from a distinct quantity. What I needed to know was why he had attacked the Netherlands’ largest telecom firm and plunged it into chaos. I needed to understand how he’d discovered to do what he did – and what had occurred to him after his arrest.

Our chats had been erratic. Sooner or later he’d be effusive and interesting, then he’d turn out to be distant. Generally, days would go earlier than he answered a message. It could prove he was in Asia. We additionally talked on Skype, as soon as. I needed to satisfy. He did, too, he mentioned.

However we by no means would. Edwin died a number of months earlier than my go to to his dad and mom. As we talked, grief over the lack of their son reared up out of the blue a number of instances. Ruud had been the final individual to see Edwin alive, and it nonetheless weighed closely on him.

Edwin was lower than a 12 months outdated when he was taken from his organic mom. She was on her personal and unable to look after an toddler. For months, she didn’t even contact him. José and Ruud fostered Edwin. José labored in healthcare, and Ruud was a chemical engineer at an organization that processed ores for pigment. They needed to offer child Edwin a loving dwelling.

However he was a troubled little one. “I all the time thought his anxiousness began when he was nonetheless little or no. He simply couldn’t bond with different individuals,” José recalled. He typically complained of abdomen aches. There have been numerous visits to the physician and to hospital. Every time there can be medical checks. “Actually, I believe it was psychological,” mentioned José. “Edwin had a variety of anxiousness, however the docs centered on bodily causes.”

Edwin wasn’t like different children. His dad and mom noticed it, and so did his academics. One time, at a dad and mom’ night, a mentor requested: “What’s really flawed with him? He has virtually no pals.” Each time he was round different individuals, Edwin grew to become tense, clammed-up and withdrawn.

He virtually by no means did any sport or performed exterior. As a substitute, he most well-liked to sit down on the laptop in his room upstairs. His dad and mom let him, relieved that a minimum of he had this one interest. They knew hardly something about computer systems. They used one to ship the odd e mail or search for holidays, however that was about it.

After graduating from a vocational highschool, in 2010 Edwin enrolled in an IT course at Albeda Faculty in Rotterdam. He mentioned he needed to do one thing with computer systems. His dad and mom let him purchase a PC that he put collectively himself. It had an enormous reminiscence card and a variety of processing energy. He set it up in his bed room. Trying again, José thinks “which will have been our largest mistake”.

Edwin was obsessed together with his new toy and solely got here downstairs for meals. Sometimes, his dad and mom caught glimpses of what he was doing. Principally, he performed video games, particularly the type through which persons are violently killed – corresponding to by constructing amusement parks after which throwing individuals off the rides. There have been additionally a lot of shoot ’em ups. “He took courses in ethics at college,” mentioned Ruud, “so we thought it could be all proper ultimately.”


In the autumn of 2010, the Robbes acquired a letter from their web supplier, KPN, informing them that their web entry had been blocked. KPN mentioned it had noticed “malicious exercise” on the household’s IP tackle. When requested about it, Edwin brushed it off as nonsense. To José, he answered in jargon, saying any individual had cracked his “WPA2 key” and exploited their web connection. Baffled, José let it go.

KPN, nevertheless, didn’t let it go. The corporate’s abuse workforce carried out its personal investigation. This revealed that Edwin had used a rented server to mount an assault on an internet site providing film and TV downloads. When confronted with the proof, Edwin’s justification was that he didn’t like the location’s directors.

Edwin had bombarded the web site with so many knowledge packets that it crashed – one thing referred to as a DDoS assault. This type of assault is against the law. “Edwin could be very energetic on the web, as are a few of his pals. In some cases they’re described as a hacking ring,” somebody at KPN wrote to Ruud in an e mail. “We marvel if he understands what sort of penalties his actions can have. We urge you to speak to him about this.”

Element of cable administration on a knowledge centre server room {Photograph}: Sergio Azenha/Alamy

Ruud spoke to Edwin, and wrote again: “I’ve had an extended dialogue with him. He’s a delicate child and is regularly coming to see that what he did is a severe offence.” Ruud and Edwin had agreed the pc can be off limits for 3 months, and that he’d get it cleaned by an expert. “I don’t know something about computer systems,” Ruud concluded his e mail. “Do you’ve any solutions on who might assist me clear up his laptop?” KPN by no means replied.

Edwin’s dad and mom might inform that one thing was brewing. He was on edge and hardly left his room. As quickly as the pc ban was lifted, he was again on his PC for so long as 12 hours a day. Faculty wasn’t going effectively. His course was heavy on classroom and group work, which didn’t go well with him in any respect. He most well-liked to do issues on his personal. He was dismissive of his academics. “I do know extra about computer systems than all of them put collectively,” he informed his dad and mom one night. Additionally, the abdomen aches had returned, and he was taking an anti-anxiety drug, oxazepam, to assist him chill out and sleep.

Along with his dad and mom’ consent, in the summertime of 2011 Edwin transferred to a computing course at Zadkine Faculty in Rotterdam, the place college students got extra freedom and will work independently on initiatives.

It didn’t assist. José and Ruud didn’t know exactly how Edwin was spending his time. Sometimes, he talked about somebody he knew in England or Australia, in order that they assumed he’d made pals on-line. “At the least he’s lastly socialising,” they mentioned. Nonetheless, he appeared joyless. They informed one another he wanted area, that absolutely there have been some issues that gave him pleasure, and that he had a knack for computer systems. However on days he by no means left his display screen, it was arduous to not despair. Greater than as soon as they puzzled: “Ought to we pull the plug?”


If computer systems had been merely instruments for his dad and mom, for Edwin they had been a gateway to journey, to understanding and, most of all, to recognition. They let him do no matter he needed. If he felt like gaming, he’d boot up Home windows. However extra typically he selected Linux, his go-to working system. From there he opened completely different digital gadgets in order that he might undertake a number of personas.

On boards he met like-minded children his age from all around the world who spent total days at their computer systems and made the sorts of social connections on-line that they couldn’t in the true world. Quiet and reclusive children, largely. Cloaked in made-up identities, they chatted about computer systems, women and going out, and devised tips to infiltrate personal laptop networks.

On-line, Edwin was both xS or YUI – the latter a nod to the Japanese singer Yui, of whom he was an enormous fan. As YUI, he was completely different. Bolder, extra confident. On-line, quiet Edwin with the shy smile got here alive. On chat channels he met an Australian, “Dwaan”, and an American, “Sabu”, in 2011. The three talked about hacking, and his new pals confirmed Edwin locations they’d managed to interrupt in.

Sabu, because it occurs, was an enormous shot within the digital world. He was the chief of LulzSec, a collective whose six members attacked a variety of organisations and hacked the web sites of massive firms in 2011 to show their shoddy safety. Although teasing in some instances, in others their antics had severe penalties, corresponding to when the group stole knowledge belonging to greater than 70,000 US contestants on the favored TV present The X Issue, in retaliation for an alleged insult to the rapper Widespread. Additionally focused by LulzSec had been the Sony PlayStation Community and the web site of the CIA.

A number of investigation companies had been looking for Sabu however, like Edwin, he took care to cowl his tracks. All the children glided by aliases on chat channels, a few of which additionally required passwords to get in. Plus, they by no means logged on instantly from their dwelling connections, however, relatively, by a safe digital personal community (VPN). Edwin linked to a VPN server first, then went on-line anonymously. It took some self-discipline. Forgetting to make use of VPN simply as soon as would immediately make his dwelling IP tackle seen for anybody to see.

A person from Anonymous, the network of hackers known for cyber-attacks on government, corporate and religious websites.
An individual from Nameless, the community of hackers recognized for cyber-attacks on authorities, company and spiritual web sites. {Photograph}: Reuters TV

After some time, Edwin discovered his method into chat channels the place the intense hackers converged. Profitable their belief was a primary and essential step, as a result of police had been additionally lurking, attempting to infiltrate utilizing faux identities. At 16, Edwin was orbiting LulzSec in addition to a looser collective referred to as Nameless. Although not a member himself, he frolicked on their chat channels. These had been thrilling instances within the hacking world. Members of Nameless had been concentrating on a succession of organisations and declaring their solidarity with WikiLeaks, which was publishing tons of of 1000’s of US diplomatic communications. When Julian Assange’s whistleblower web site was blocked by the fee providers PayPal, Mastercard and Visa, slicing off a lot of donations to WikiLeaks, Nameless struck again with a DDoS assault that took out the fee providers’ web sites and inflicted an estimated $5.5m in losses. One member would in the end find yourself doing 18 months in jail within the UK.

Edwin’s contacts overseas gave him a confidence enhance. He spent hours chatting with individuals from all around the world about methods to hack web sites. Edwin typically mocked “regular” life and western society. He denounced materialism and superficial considerations. However most of all they talked about hacking. Dwaan bragged about a number of the locations he’d been. To them, it was all a prank: getting out and in simply to show they might bypass a website’s safety. They by no means stole. All they needed was to look.

In December 2011, when he was 17, Edwin had a web-based trade with “Phed”, who confirmed him an “exploit”. An exploit is a chunk of code that takes benefit of vulnerabilities in a community’s safety to achieve entry someplace, like a key that opens outdated locks. Laptop networks, particularly at giant organisations, depend on a lot of completely different software program. All software program has one or two holes – some recognized, others nonetheless undiscovered. Each time software program makers uncover such a vulnerability, they rapidly take steps to create a patch and supply an replace. Hackers, in the meantime, are snooping round for these exact same weaknesses and dealing simply as rapidly to make a key – an exploit – to get inside.

Edwin was trawling the web and scanning networks to see who is perhaps utilizing software program with a recognized gap. On this case, it was HP Knowledge Protector. He searched websites manually utilizing Google, coming into “Knowledge Protector” because the search time period alongside a selected net or IP tackle. In early December 2011, Edwin struck gold. He discovered a college in Norway, NTNU, that was utilizing the software program and hadn’t but put in the replace containing the patch. Edwin grabbed his exploit, executed it, and he was inside. Trying across the college’s community, he found he had six laptop servers at his command. On a roll, Edwin subsequent gained management of a “supercomputer” on the College of Tromsø. He nosed round for some time after which put in a “backdoor”. Now he might entry the college’s laptop server remotely at any time when he needed to.

Edwin pulled off his stunt with out a hitch and earned himself hacker cred together with his new pals. Dwaan responded to Edwin’s feat with enthused fist pumps and exclamations of “Loooooooolll” and “OMG!”. This solely whetted Edwin’s urge for food. He went searching for new targets in different nations. His subsequent sufferer was the College of Twente within the Netherlands, then an internet site in Iceland, and after {that a} college in Japan. He was unstoppable. So long as he took care to connect with a VPN server in Russia first, he left no tracks to comply with.


It was whereas working one other scan that Edwin observed some outdated software program at KPN. Holland’s largest telecoms firm was utilizing HP Knowledge Protector and hadn’t put in the replace but. Right here was an open window. Did he dare sneak in? Why not take a fast peek inside his personal web supplier? In spite of everything, KPN was an enormous fish and would earn him large credit score. Edwin took the gamble. He entered a random KPN IP tackle, ran his exploit after which, utilizing a detour by the Japanese college, slipped inside KPN’s community.

He discovered himself in a far nook of the community, which is to say he was in, however nonetheless wanted to open some doorways. As an illustration, he couldn’t ship instructions instantly from his personal laptop to KPN. Nor did he have full rights throughout the entire community. He couldn’t simply stroll round, as a result of a firewall was blocking his method. However all this was little one’s play. By shifting a programme from his personal PC on to the KPN laptop, Edwin might bypass the wall. Now he was free to do as he happy.

The LulzSec symbol.
The LulzSec image. {Photograph}: Wikipedia

Silly KPN, he thought to himself. The entire place was riddled with holes. Scanning the remainder of the community from the KPN machine he’d accessed, Edwin noticed the out of date software program being utilized in tons of of locations. Nearly each laptop server within the telecom supplier’s huge community had a window open. The child from Barendrecht strolled round unimpeded, and what he noticed astonished him. He might management 514 laptop servers. He might even entry the core router, the spine of KPN’s total community. He might see the information of two.1 million KPN clients. He might block tons of of 1000’s of individuals from connecting to the nationwide emergency phone line. He might redirect web visitors in order that individuals who needed to go to, say, a information website, would wind up someplace fully completely different. Edwin might do no matter he needed and KPN wouldn’t know a factor.

Excitedly, he informed Dwaan of his conquest. At first, Dwaan refused to consider him. To show he’d gained command of KPN, Edwin logged on to the chat channel from the KPN community. “WTF!” Dwaan responded. Edwin was thrilled together with his newfound standing. He dropped out of his computing course. At dwelling, the stress eased. Relieved, his mom emailed a good friend to say that “Edwin has been feeling higher. He’s been exempted from attending courses this 12 months and now he’s doing a highschool English course from dwelling.”

In the meantime, up in his room, Edwin was increasing his newest coup. “I’m hacking my ISP,” he introduced to “Combasca”, a Korean scholar. Combasca didn’t consider him and demanded proof. Once more, Edwin entered the chat channel from the KPN community. He urged Combasca: “U ought to turn out to be a hacker too.”


As Edwin gained plaudits on-line, a gaggle of males and one girl sat in a high-rise off the A12 motorway exterior The Hague, observing one another in dismay. Dozens of individuals had arrange store in a vacant workplace one flooring up from the studios of the radio station Contemporary FM. That they had put in desks, laptops and community cables. To somebody who didn’t know what was occurring, it could have been a curious sight: individuals dashing as much as the highest flooring early every morning and never re-emerging till previous midnight. Supply providers dropping off dinner within the evenings. Between 80 and 100 staff had been holed up like this for days, lots of them engineers and technicians from KPN and researchers from Fox-IT, ​​a Dutch safety firm that displays programs and networks for consumer firms around the globe.

It had all began with a message from somebody calling themselves Combasca in South Korea. Combasca mentioned he’d been chatting with a man calling himself YUI, who claimed to have hacked KPN. And he had proof. After letting YUI boast about what he’d performed, Combasca had circled and contacted KPN. By now, two weeks on, there was real panic. Clearly, any individual was inside KPN’s community. It may very well be a loner, or it may very well be a international state. No person knew. Nor might KPN or Fox-IT get a deal with on the extent of the harm. They needed to tread frivolously, inspecting computer systems whereas retaining programs working in order to not disrupt service to hundreds of thousands of consumers.

On scanning web visitors, it grew to become obvious that tons of of factors within the KPN community had been connecting to areas exterior. Window and doorways had been flapping open in all places. On 20 January 2012, KPN raised its alert degree to orange. Its enterprise operations had been in grave hazard.

Every week later, on 27 January, there was a good larger discovery. The hacker had additionally damaged into the core router, successfully taking management of the entire community, and will do no matter they needed: listen in on web visitors, flip off TVs, take out the nationwide emergency hotline. The alert degree was raised to purple. With the nation’s most vital telecoms supplier beneath risk, KPN notified the Nationwide Cyber Safety Centre (NCSC) and the nationwide police’s excessive tech crime unit. The following morning, considered one of KPN’s board members filed a police report for laptop invasion.

KPN, the Robbes’ internet provider.
KPN, the Robbes’ web supplier. {Photograph}: Piroschka Van De Wouw/Reuters

The scenario triggered widespread alarm. The fragility of a community on which hundreds of thousands of individuals relied had been laid naked. Following the hacker’s path, the police workforce, Fox-IT and KPN lastly recognized the pc server by which he’d entered the community. However after that, the puzzle grew to become trickier, as a result of the hacker was shielding himself utilizing VPN connections. The police workforce flew to South Korea to speak to Combasca, and later to Japan, the place a college community had been breached by the identical particular person.

Investigators might see the hacker was utilizing a Russian VPN server whose IP tackle confirmed up greater than as soon as in KPN’s community. Frustratingly, although, this data didn’t actually assist the workforce, as a result of VPN servers masks a consumer’s identification. There was one very last thing they might strive: to comply with visitors from the VPN server to a person laptop in KPN’s community.

That laptop turned out to host an internet site, on which a KPN buyer shared downloaded films. On that website’s server, the investigators additionally discovered hacking recordsdata. The e-mail tackle of the location’s administrator was teqnology@dwell.com. Once they seemed it up, the investigators uncovered one other lead: the identical e mail tackle had been used earlier in correspondence with KPN a couple of blocked IP tackle. In 2010, an IP tackle belonging to teqnology@dwell.com had been blocked briefly on account of “malicious actions”. That IP tackle was linked to a home in Barendrecht, simply south of Rotterdam.

Lastly, the hacker made a mistake. He skipped the VPN and entered a hacked KPN laptop server instantly from his dwelling connection. With that, he uncovered his dwelling tackle.

Police had a wiretap on the hacker’s dwelling, to assemble some final bits of proof. Sooner or later their total web feed vanished, leaving the police observing a clean display screen. Their faucet in Barendrecht was energetic, however no knowledge was coming in. The issue, police found, was that KPN had by chance blocked the suspect’s web connection.

A bit greater than two months after receiving Combasca’s message, the police lastly had sufficient proof to drag Edwin from his laptop. Two brokers had been despatched to intercept his mom and get her home keys. Then they sneaked as much as the upstairs room the place Edwin sat, unsuspecting, taking the web by storm as “xS”. Instantly, uniformed males burst into the room. “Police! Get your fingers off the pc!”


José Robbe put a plate of biscuits in entrance of me and poured espresso. Ruud sat beside me. As we talked, he pulled a handkerchief from the pocket of his denims a few instances, pushing apart his glasses to dry his eyes.

After his arrest, Edwin was detained for 42 days, discovered responsible of hacking and given a suspended jail sentence of 240 days plus neighborhood service. He didn’t need to do neighborhood service, nevertheless, so did the time as a substitute. Afterwards, Edwin was much more withdrawn. He self-medicated with sedatives and experimented with a wide range of medication. His dad would come dwelling to seek out the home strewn with leaves and crops that Edwin was utilizing to prepare dinner up some psychedelic brew.

Edwin was delusional by this level, and took exception to every thing. To his dad and mom, the scenario appeared hopeless. Even professionals on the rehabilitation clinic the place he was admitted, De Bouman in Rotterdam, despatched him packing after per week, saying his behaviour made him inconceivable. Edwin requested Ruud if he might transfer again dwelling, however his dad didn’t really feel as much as the duty of taking in his now 22-year-old son.

As Edwin stood on his doorstep, Ruud turned him away with a heavy coronary heart.

“Come on,” Edwin pleaded. However Ruud was on the finish of his tether. “We will’t,” he mentioned. “I’m sorry.”

Edwin left with a backpack. His dad and mom had no concept the place he’d go.

After a number of weeks with no information, Ruud tried to get in contact by WhatsApp and e mail. Edwin solely responded to at least one e mail, saying: “Certain, every thing’s positive. I’m in Pyongyang, North Korea.” Connected to the message was {a photograph}. It confirmed Edwin dressed all in black, with eye-catching chains on his jacket. Standing subsequent to him was a Korean soldier. He had posed in entrance of an image of the North Korean chief Kim Jong-un (in all probability, the truth is, a vacationer attraction in South Korea). Edwin closed his e mail with: “They monitor issues like WhatsApp and telephones. However a minimum of they’ve computer systems.”

It was considered one of his final messages. Ruud bowed his head. “Ought to I’ve let him come again dwelling?” he puzzled. “Ought to I’ve given him yet another probability? I’d reached my restrict. I simply couldn’t do it.”

I’d needed to listen to the story from Edwin himself. The one time we Skyped, he’d been in a lodge room in South Korea. Eight minutes into our name, he signed off with a smile and a peace signal. After that we chatted sporadically over WhatsApp. His closing messages had been laced with despair. “I don’t prefer it right here,” he wrote, and “They’ve bought weapons”, and “I need to get out of right here ASAP.” He stopped responding to my questions on KPN. A number of days later I used to be contacted by a supply. “Did you hear about Edwin?” He’d been discovered useless in a lodge bathtub, not removed from Seoul’s worldwide airport. The door of his room had been barricaded from the within with furnishings and pillows.

At their dwelling, José and Ruud pulled out photos of Edwin and informed me about his difficult youth. They requested about my final dialog with him, about which Ruud noticed: “That was simply earlier than he died.”

Edwin’s arrest and incarceration had been a tipping level, they informed me – after that, it was all downhill. And questions linger: if it’s that simple to interrupt in someplace, isn’t there a a lot larger societal downside we ought to deal with?

It definitely didn’t assist that his dad and mom had solely a hazy grasp of what Edwin really did. The technical jargon authorities used within the case towards Edwin meant nothing to them. In accordance with the general public prosecutor, it constituted “probably the most severe hacks within the Netherlands’ historical past”. Edwin’s work was “ingenious” and the “affect on KPN and thus on society at giant, immense”. By KPN’s personal reckoning, it value them €3m.

After the hack, KPN took measures to ramp up safety in its programs. Though Edwin instantly pleaded responsible to all expenses in courtroom and cooperated with the judicial inquiry, the general public prosecutor was scathing in his condemnation. Edwin’s actions, he charged, had been “malicious and deliberate” and brought about “imminent hazard to life”.

“We actually had no concept what he was as much as,” Ruud mentioned. It introduced dwelling to him simply how vastly completely different the dangers of the digital world are from these of the true world. “It by no means even occurred to us that he might trigger one thing like this.”

“I’m extra anxious about computer systems now,” Ruud admitted. When he fills in his tax returns and might’t get the location to work, he will get wired. “Generally I’m afraid somebody is perhaps utilizing my identification. I’m compelled to rely upon applied sciences I can’t perceive, and that worries me.”

That is an edited extract from There’s a Warfare On However No One Can See It, printed by Bloomsbury and out there at guardianbookshop.co.uk

Huib Modderkolk can be in dialog with Luke Harding for a Guardian Dwell on-line occasion on 17 November. Guide tickets right here

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